MEXICO CITY, May 14 - Juan GonzÃ¡lez DurÃ¡n, who like nearly everyone
in Nanchital works for Pemex, the state-owned oil monopoly, had no
doubt about who was responsible for his brother's death last month when
a work crew cut into the wrong pipeline and six men died in a blast of
Mr. GonzÃ¡lez blamed a Pemex engineer who had been overseeing the job but left just before the accident.
"I was a worker for Pemex for years, and I worked on deep-sea
platforms, and there I could tell you many bad things that the
engineers would do, that they would not pay attention to the work," he
said. "It makes me sick."
Mr. GonzÃ¡lez is not the only one fed up in this region, the heart of
the oil and petrochemical industry. The blast that killed his brother
and five other workers was the latest in more than 12 pipeline
accidents to befall Pemex since October.
The spills have focused Mexico's attention on what even company
officials acknowledge is an old and poorly maintained network of
pipelines. About a third of the network is more than 30 years old, and
some pumping equipment is so antiquated that the company cannot find
spare parts, Pemex officials say.
But the recent spate of accidents also highlights the complicated
symbiotic relationship between the company and the government that is
supposed to regulate it. Pemex provides the government with 40 percent
of its income, and the environmental agency charged with policing the
oil company is woefully underfinanced.
This year, Pemex's authorized budget for maintenance is almost $1
billion less than it needs, Luis RamÃrez Corzo, who became Pemex's
director general last December, has said. Lawmakers control Pemex's
budget, and it pays some two-thirds of its revenue in taxes. Despite
record high oil prices that increased revenues to $69 billion last
year, Pemex, short for PetrÃ³leos Mexicanos, reported a loss of $1.3
Pemex officials complain that the government mainly uses the oil
industry to finance the rest of its spending and puts too little money
into infrastructure and maintenance.
Environmentalists say the company's sins, including padded payrolls
and oil spills, go unpunished because its enormous importance to the
nation's coffers gives it unparalleled political power. In particular,
the federal environmental enforcement agency, known as Profepa, has
proved toothless when policing Pemex facilities, they say.
"It's a fact that Profepa is very limited, it definitely follows the
party line, they can't touch Pemex much," said Francisco VillagrÃ¡n
Ballesteros, a lawyer who has sued Pemex officials over the recent
The Profepa chief, JosÃ© Luis Luege, has been reduced to making
threats he cannot carry out. On Thursday, he held a news conference to
demand that Pemex repair 35 problem pipelines, but he acknowledged that
it would cost $770 million. Pemex says it has money to repair just
seven. Mr. Luege acknowledged that any decision to shut down a major
pipeline - and halt a refinery - would probably have to be made by the
To many Mexicans who can recall catastrophic Pemex accidents in the
recent past, the company is synonymous with a callous disregard for
safety and the environment. In 1986, a liquefied petroleum gas terminal
blew up outside Mexico City, killing more than 500. Six years later, a
pipeline explosion in Guadalajara killed more than 200 people.
Since then, the company has worked to upgrade safety and
maintenance, its officials say. It has opened its installations to
government inspectors and Pemex executives now submit to public
questions and rebukes in Congress. But the spills in Veracruz suggest
that the company has a long way to go to repair decades of neglect
along its 38,000 miles of pipelines.
Mr. RamÃrez Corzo said Pemex needed to spend $12.3 billion on
maintenance through 2008, a third of that on upgrading pipelines. "This
is the crude reality," Mr. RamÃrez Corzo said in April at a Senate
hearing on the Veracruz accidents. "This is the company we have got,
not the company we would like to have."
Last Dec. 22, the lack of maintenance that Mr. RamÃrez Corzo has
complained about led to a huge spill, one of the worst in years. At
least 5,000 barrels of crude erupted from a ruptured pipe in Nanchital,
flooded nearby fields, coated the Coatzacoalcos River and ended up on
The spill could have been foretold, officials acknowledge. That
section of the pipeline was identified as weak in 1997, but the first
contractor hired to repair it was incompetent and abandoned the job,
Pemex officials said. The pipeline was later patched but never replaced.
Then a turbine pump that should have been replaced a dozen years ago
broke down, causing a leak and then a fire, Mr. RamÃrez Corzo told
lawmakers. Changes in pressure in the pipeline caused it to rupture
where it emerges from the ground near the river.
"Our infrastructure has started to become old and tired," said JosÃ©
Manuel Olivares PÃ¡ez, a Pemex official in charge of the oil pipelines.
"There are always risks but the key is to evaluate periodically that
your pipelines are secure. There are many points where they are not
But Pemex says it cannot fix all those weak spots. While the
government keeps tight control over Pemex's budget, its ability to
watch over Pemex's compliance with environmental and safety regulations
is hindered by a tiny budget and weak laws.
Profepa, an acronym for the federal prosecutor's office for
environmental protection, employs just 150 industrial inspectors
nationally, and Pemex has 2000 installations to check, said JosÃ© RamÃ³n
ArdavÃn Ituarte, the deputy prosecutor for industrial inspection.
The pipeline from Nuevo Teapa to Poza Rica that burst last December
had long been earmarked as a risk, but Pemex had promised to make
"We knew there was a risk there, but we could not do anything," said
Gerardo A. Alvarado Salinas, Profepa's director general for inspection
of pollution sources. "The law does not allow us to take preventive
action. I cannot close this pipeline because tomorrow there might be a
spill. I have to wait until there is a spill."
After an accident, environmental officials' tools are limited,
because the law sets low fines. (Since 2001, Pemex has paid less than
$5 million in penalties.) And prosecuting officials in connection with
negligence is the responsibility of the attorney general's office,
which has shown little appetite for taking on the company. In five
years, the government has carried out one prosecution.
The accident in Nanchital in April released a plume of ammonia gas,
estimated at 60 liquid tons, killed six workers in the excavation,
blackened trees and plants for hundreds of yards and forced the
evacuation of at least 900 people. It took two days to retrieve the
Just up the road from the site, family members waited grimly. The
dead men left behind wives and children with little or no money. Most
had been working for the subcontractor, Reparaciones Navales de
PetroquÃmica, for only a few months. On May 4, Pemex gave $74,500 in
all to the families of the six men, although it said it might be
ordered to pay more in the future.
Pemex officials have tried to divert blame, saying the subcontractor
cut into the wrong pipe after a supervising engineer left to check on
the location of the right one. But family members asked why the workers
had no protective suits.
"They put him in there to work without any protection," said Victor
Armas Mayo, 56, whose 30-year-old son, Daniel Armas, was killed. "I
don't know how Pemex allowed this."
A half mile away, Angel MartÃnez, who also works for Pemex, was
fishing in the Coatzacoalcos River just a hundred yards from the site
of the spill last December. Over the last four months, Pemex hired
crews of former fishermen and brought in heavy machinery to remove more
than 10,000 tons of contaminated soil and pile it at four sites along
the river. But Mr. Luege said on Thursday that Pemex had not finished
and ordered the company to remove the soil before the rainy season
begins next month. The fish are back, as are the pelicans and gulls.
But worries that it will happen again remain. "They are very
deteriorated, the pipelines here, and the company hasn't done
anything," Mr. MartÃnez, 34, said, looking back at the pump station.
"People are worried. This is not the first time."