"More than 60% of U.S. corporations didn't pay any federal taxes for
1996 through 2000, years when the economy boomed and corporate profits
soared, the investigative arm of Congress reported.
The disclosures from the General Accounting Office are certain to fuel the debate over
corporate tax payments in the presidential campaign. Corporate tax
receipts have shrunk markedly as a share of overall federal revenue in
recent years, and were particularly depressed when the economy soured.
By 2003, they had fallen to just 7.4% of overall federal receipts, the
lowest rate since 1983, and the second-lowest rate since 1934, federal
budget officials say."
"The GAO analysis of Internal Revenue Service data comes as tax
avoidance by both U.S. and foreign companies also is drawing increased
scrutiny from the IRS and Congress. But more so than similar previous
reports, the analysis suggests that dodging taxes, both legally and
otherwise, has become deeply rooted in U.S. corporate culture. The
analysis found that even more foreign-owned companies doing business in
the U.S. -- about 70% of them -- reported that they didn't owe any U.S.
federal taxes during the late 1990s."
"Too many corporations are finagling ways to dodge paying Uncle Sam,
despite the benefits they receive from this country," said Sen. Carl
Levin (D., Mich.), who requested the study along with Sen. Byron Dorgan
(D., N.D.). "Thwarting corporate tax dodgers will take tax reform and
stronger enforcement." A 1999 GAO study on corporate tax payments
reached similar results."
"The GAO report also may further fuel a drive in Congress to crack down
on a variety of corporate tax-dodging strategies, such as a recently
discovered leasing maneuver that allows companies to buy up depreciation
rights to public transit lines, highways and water systems. Senate
tax-committee leaders have released a list of companies involved that
includes a number of well-known financial firms, such as First Union
Commercial Corp., a unit of Wachovia Corp. Wachovia has defended its
involvement, saying the transactions are legal."
"The report examined a sample of tax information for the years 1996
through 2000; for 2000, it covered about 2.1 million returns filed by
U.S.-controlled corporations and 69,000 filed by foreign-controlled
corporations. It showed that big companies -- defined as those with at
least $250 million in assets or $50 million in gross receipts -- were
more likely to pay taxes than smaller ones. Still, the GAO said 45.3%
of large U.S.-controlled companies and 37.5% of large foreign-controlled
companies had no tax liability in 2000. More than 35% paid less than 5%
of their income."