NEW DELHI -- A week after India's Supreme Court
case against the Narmada dam, activists opposing the scheme have
may well be the final battle by the country's best known people's
Famed anti-Narmada dam campaigner, Medha Patkar, Friday entered
third day of her hunger protest, in the city of Bhopal, the
central Madhya Pradesh state. The state is the home of most of the
million, mainly indigenous people to be displaced by the four
dollar Sardar Sarovar dam.
For well over a decade, Patkar, who has won the Swedish 'Right
Livelihood Award', also described as the alternative Nobel Prize,
hundreds of anti-dam rallies, being beaten up and arrested several
the police. She almost died of dehydration, during a similar 22-
protest nine years ago.
Patkar's protest has been accompanied by a series of public
demonstrations against the court ruling, held across the country
as well as
in North America, West Europe and South Africa.
The Sardar Sarovar, being built in the western coastal state of
adjoining Madhya Pradesh, is to be the first of 30 big and
medium and small dams planned on the Narmada, which flows westward
central India into the Arabian Sea.
The country's apex court has ordered resumption of work on the
built dam wall. Project authorities have been allowed to build up
height of 90 metres immediately and to the dam's full height of
metres in stages, after complying with environmental and
conditions. The construction is set to resume Oct. 31.
Work on the dam was stopped five years ago by the Supreme
took six years to rule on the petition by the anti-dam Narmada
Andolan (NBA) -- a coalition of people's groups, which began
against the project in the mid-1980s.
However, the movement has since widened its protest to target
calls India's 'destructive development' schemes like the Sardar
These have social and economic costs that outweigh the claimed
says the NBA.
More than 3,000 peasants joined mass protests Tuesday in the
Valley, declaring they would not move to make way for the project.
rallies were also taken out in the past days in the southern
of Bangalore and Chennai.
Protest marches were organised in western Maharashtra state,
thousands of villagers to be displaced by the Sardar Sarovar. More
people representing some 20 groups held a one-day hunger protest
in the Indian capital, outside the Supreme Court building.
However, the protests were muted in Gujarat. Support for the
Sarovar cuts across political divides in the largely arid state,
authorities and politicians promise that the scheme will help
acute scarcity of drinking and farm irrigation water.
A severe drought in Gujarat last year, said to be the worst in
years, was used by dam supporters to attack the NBA. State
blamed Patkar and her movement for the water scarcity that forced
thousands of peasants to flee their homes.
According to Gujarat's Minister for Narmada Development,
Vyas, the Sardar Sarovar is the only way to take drinking water to
drought-prone, Saurashtra, Kutch and the northern parts of the
''The NBA should let us finish the dam and demonstrate what can
quickly,'' said Vyas.
Emboldened by the court ruling in its favour, the Gujarat
now asked the federal sleuthing agency, the Central Bureau of
(CBI), to probe the NBA's finances and check on foreign
The state government, which declared a public holiday in
celebrate the verdict, said it was determined to carry out the
Court order at all costs -- an ominous warning that further
not be tolerated.
While the NBA's campaign is backed by a number of well-known
personalities like famous Indian author Arundhati Roy, the pro-dam
does not lack for big names. These include former top journalist
Verghese and prominent development economist Yogendra Alagh, a
federal government minister.
The NBA's argument is backed by the finding of a survey of
large dams in
India, which was ordered by the World Commission on Dams (WCD).
found that the hundreds of big dams built in India in the past
have boosted national food and industrial production but at a cost
According to the report, nearly two-thirds of the people
multi-purpose river valley projects in India are either tribals or
of the socially oppressed 'scheduled castes'. The WCD report is to
launced Nov. 16 by Nelson Mandela in the British capital.
- 194 World Financial Institutions