A wave of American companies have been arriving in Iraq
in recent months to pursue what is expected to be a multibillion-dollar
bonanza of projects to revive the country's stagnant petroleum
industry, as Iraq seeks to establish itself as a rival to Saudi Arabia
as the world's top oil producer.
Since the 2003 American-led invasion, nearly all of the biggest reconstruction
projects in Iraq have been controlled by the United States. But many
rebuilding contracts are expected to be awarded as soon as this month
for drilling hundreds of new wells, repairing thousands of miles of
pipeline and building several giant floating oil terminals in the
Persian Gulf, and possibly a new port.
The contracts will be administered either directly by the Iraqi
government or as part of Baghdad's oversight of international oil
companies that have signed agreements during the past few months to
develop the country's most promising oil fields.
There are misgivings, however, about Iraq's ability to adequately
monitor contracts that could total $10 billion over the next five
years. The concerns have been heightened by the prominent role expected
to be played by American companies that have been criticized in the
past by United States government auditors and inspectors for
overcharging by hundreds of millions of dollars, performing shoddy work
and failing to finish hundreds of crucial projects while under contract
Among the companies that have started sending workers and equipment
to the country or have plans to are Halliburton, Baker Hughes,
Weatherford International and Schlumberger, all Houston-based
oil-services companies, and several construction and engineering
giants, including KBR, Bechtel, Parsons, Fluor and Foster Wheeler.
Halliburton and its former subsidiary KBR, as well as Bechtel and
Parsons, have been singled out for criticism by the Special Inspector
General for Iraq Reconstruction for their previous work in Iraq.
The new contracts will put the companies into direct contact with an
Iraqi government that has frequently acknowledged its own challenges in
dealing with corruption and cronyism, and that has a lack of
experienced managers, adequate enforcement and efficient auditing
The companies deny intentional wrongdoing in their dealings in Iraq
and say that their experience there and in other oil-producing
countries in Central Asia gives them an advantage.
"KBR has historic experience on previous oil and gas production
projects ranging from Azerbaijan to Kazakhstan," Heather Browne, KBR's
director of corporate communications, wrote in an e-mail response to
questions. "Our pursuit of additional contracts in the region is based
on this experience in addition to KBR's work on Project RIO (Restore
During a conference call with industry analysts in October, David J. Lesar,
Halliburton's chief executive, said that he had visited Iraq and that
the company was already doing a limited amount of work on oil wells
"I think you see everybody trying to establish a base there, and
we're no exception," Mr. Lesar said. "Clearly, a great future there and
one we will participate in - in a big way."
But others questioned the Iraqi government's capacity to police the
companies. "These are for-profit concerns and they are trying to make
as much money as they can," said Pratap Chatterjee, former executive
director of an anticorruption group, CorpWatch,
and author of a recent book about Halliburton. "What the Iraq
government needs is a good system of transparency and accountability,
and for someone who knows what they're doing to oversee the work.
Otherwise, they are going to be taken for a ride."
During the past several months, Iraq has signed 10 production
contracts with international oil companies as it tries to increase its
oil output from a relatively static 2.4 million barrels a day to as
much as 12 million barrels a day within six years. Officials said they
hoped to drill at least 430 oil wells during the next two years.
The planned work will require new pipelines, including as many as
three undersea lines, floating terminals, water treatment facilities,
pump stations, oil storage tanks, power plants and possibly a new
Persian Gulf port that might be needed to handle the increased oil
There will also be a need for new housing, roads and schools, and
workers will need to remove unexploded ordnance from oil fields and
shipping lanes, transport massive oil rigs and use extraordinary
amounts of concrete and steel to reinforce the wells.
While American oil companies have enjoyed only modest success
in winning oil development deals in Iraq, the numerous contracts signed
in recent months have created an enormous backlog of work that leaves
Baghdad with limited alternatives to Halliburton and the other American
companies that dominate the oil industry services sector.
"Iraq has little choice," said Joost R. Hiltermann, deputy program director for the Middle East and North Africa with the International Crisis Group,
a nonprofit organization that aims to prevent deadly conflicts. "It is
desperate to increase its revenues, almost all of which derive from the
sale of oil. But the government has little capacity to monitor the many
companies that will be involved in rehabilitating its ailing oil
industry, or indeed its own operations. This is a recipe for massive
corruption, but for Iraqi policy makers the cost will be worth it,
given the expected massive returns."
Government officials maintain, however, that Iraq's system of checks
and balances will help it avoid the mistakes made by the United States.
"There are procedures where if a company breaches a contract or
makes errors, they will be blacklisted from working in Iraq," said Dr.
Sabah A. Shibeeb al-Saidi, chief of the Ministry of Oil's
legal and commercial department in the petroleum contracts and
licensing directorate. "But if they are not blacklisted we will deal
with them. We expect oil services companies to do many things in Iraq."
Neither Halliburton nor KBR is on the Iraqi government blacklist,
and Mr. Saidi and other senior Iraqi government officials interviewed
said they had never heard of either those companies or of other
American ones that have become household names in the United States
because of their work in Iraq.
Halliburton's former subsidiary, KBR, which was once run by former Vice President Dick Cheney,
has won contracts worth more than $24 billion since the start of the
war, giving it vast responsibility for reinvigorating Iraq's oil
sector. Among many other criticisms of the company's performance in
Iraq, Pentagon auditors found that KBR had overcharged the government
by more than $200 million.
- 15 Halliburton
- 104 Globalization
- 106 Money & Politics
- 124 War & Disaster Profiteering
- 187 Privatization
- 190 Natural Resources